Yerlan Kozhagapanov was born in 1968 in the Almaty region.
In 1992, he graduated from Karaganda State University, in 1999 — Almaty State University. In 2006, he graduated from the Russian Customs Academy of the State Customs Committee of the Russian Federation with a degree in economics, finance, and law.
He began his labor activity in 1987. In 1990-1994, he was engaged in entrepreneurial activity. In 1994-2007 he worked in state bodies and enterprises.
In 2007-2013, he held the post of deputy akim of Astana. In 2013-2016 he worked as chairman of the Agency for Sports and Physical Culture of the Republic of Kazakhstan, President of the Football Federation of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
From December 2016 to the present, he held the post of adviser to the Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
He was awarded the "Aibyn" Order of the second degree, the "Kurmet" Order.